The third and final installment in the housing series focuses on the most important feature in the rabbit pen: the litterbox.
Many rabbits spend a lot of time in their litterboxes, and use it not solely for elimination and hay consumption, but also view it as a comfortable place to take a nap, groom, or just hang out.
Accordingly, the box itself needs to be spacious enough to allow the rabbit to move around comfortably. For a medium-sized single rabbit, a cat litterbox, such as this one from Target, works perfectly. For a larger breed, or for a bonded pair or trio, invest instead in a large plastic container. They are large, cheap, and easy to clean. With multiple rabbits, I recommend having multiple litterboxes to increase chance of good habits. Multiple litterboxes are a good idea also if the rabbit-proofed area is large or encompasses several rooms.
|This plastic container is spacious enough for two.|
|White vinegar is a safe and effective cleaner.|
Setting up the Litterbox
I recommend lining the box with newspaper before adding a few inches of rabbit-safe litter. Carefresh and Yesterday’s News are great options for odor absorption and wood stove pellets are a great economical option. Some people like aspen shavings, but be sure to avoid pine or cedar chips as those have been linked to health issues. Additionally, avoid any clumping or dusty cat litters.
Place a large amount of quality grass hay on one side of the litterbox and make sure the hay is replenished frequently. There should always be a generous portion of hay in the box, as it is integral for a rabbit's well-being. Rabbits tend to eat the hay from one side of the box and use the other side of the box for elimination purposes.
Common Litterbox Problems
Tipping over the box
If your rabbit is repeatedly tipping over his or her litterbox, switch to a larger and more substantial litterbox. You can also try switching to a heavier type of litter (wood stove pellets, for instance, are heavier than Carefresh, etc). For the really persistent rabbits, you can secure the box to the side of the cage/pen with some heavy duty zip ties. This problem, like most others, usually stems from boredom, so addressing the root of the problem is also integral.
Digging in box
Nothing is more infuriating than coming home to an empty litterbox with the contents spread all around the floor next to it. A homemade or purchased grate can stop this problem easily.
Not using box
A rabbit who suddenly refuses to use a litterbox could be suffering from a medical issue, such as a urinary tract infection or stones, or even a neurologic or orthopedic problem preventing physical entry into the box. A young rabbit messing up previously perfect litterbox habits usually results from an increase in hormones as he or she enters puberty. All these warrant a visit to the veterinarian.
Urinating next to box
Your rabbit is using the litterbox and yet you find urine next to or under the box. This is an indication she may be urinating over the edge of the box. Watch closely the next time she urinates and you’ll notice her raising her hind end ever so slightly prior to urination. If the edges of the box are too low, your rabbit could accidently be missing the box. Try a box with a higher edge, one that is larger, or even a covered cat litterbox.
Are there any other problems I haven’t covered? Leave them in the comments section and I will address them as I can!